Power distribution begins as soon as we receive it from the supplier. In our building it is received through a panel that distributes it to all areas of our facility.
Generally, it is delivered by the supplier in medium voltage through a transformer that reduces the voltage to a commercial or residential use.
This voltage is received in a main distribution panel, equipped with disconnection protection against power failures coming from the supplier, thus protecting everything we have inside of our facilities.
From this main distribution panel, cables are taken to all areas, this is done through ladder or tray type channeling or conduits.
That power is what we use to run our equipment.
The conduits carrying the cables to our equipment must be adequately sized to allow growth or regulatory compliance.
In most installations there will be intermediate electrical panels that offer a way to manage and protect the electrical load of the equipment being connected.
Once at the place where the load or the equipment is located, the electrical contact is made.
Our business focus is to deliver power to the equipment of the different solutions we sell: Physical Security, UC or ProAv, which are generally powered with a UPS as they are required to continue working even when there is a power failure from the service provider.
This equipment is housed in buildings known as Telecommunications Rooms, Sites or Data Centers.
Regarding the Telecommunication Rooms, from the main electrical panel there is a secondary panel that feeds both the Telecommunication Room and the equipment of that area or floor.
There, in the Telecommunications Room, the secondary electrical panel will connect to a UPS that will feed those devices whose operation is essential and cannot be stopped.
In the Telecommunications room we will have the equipment that serves all of the building's technologies and that is generally installed in a rack or cabinet.
In this rack or cabinet, we have installed a Power Distribution Unit or PDU which will allow us to connect all the equipment in this rack/cabinet.
If necessary, we can have up to two PDUs per rack/cabinet if another power system is available for redundancy in case one fails.
There are many types of PDUs, depending on how much management is needed:
- Basic in which you do not have any type of consumption control or readout.
- Traceable that has a display that indicates the current that is circulating throughout the PDU.
- Manageable that connects to the data network and allows us to remotely know the consumption of the PDU and sometimes of each contact of the PDU.
- Switched that connects to the data network and we can not only monitor consumption, but also enable or disable each PDU contact.
The equipment connected to the PDU is connected through power cables. It is recommended to switch to cables of suitable length and color to avoid long cables and easy identification of the main and redundant system.
Within a Data Center, power distribution is critical.
We must ensure a flawless and adequate power delivery to every server or equipment that requires it.
Data Center traditional distribution is through what is known as "Boas", which are flexible conduits that carry cables inside. At each end, these "boas" have connectors that allow them to connect to a PDU in the rack/cabinet and at the other end they connect to the panel.
The disadvantage of this type of distribution through " boas" is that if there is any change or movement of the cabinet to power, that boa is hardly going to be useful.
To solve this problem, a system known as "Electroduct" ("Electroducto") was developed.
This conduit, which is installed in the entire cabinet row, allows flexibility in the movements, changes or additions of cabinets needed to be powered.
This electroduct is dimensioned considering the total load of the cabinets being connected and its growth.
In both cases, boa or electroduct, it is necessary to connect them to the backup power system so that in the event of power failure from the electricity supplier, a continuous power supply to the cabinets is ensured.
Depending on the availability required or needed in the DC, two power supply systems can be used, either with boas or electroduct, main and redundant power supply, so that power is always available in the cabinet.
PDUs are classified into basic PDUs and intelligent PDUs.
Basic PDUs only distribute power from the input to multiple outputs.
Intelligent PDU's allow the PDU to remotely manage power metering information, power outlet on/off control and/or alarms and even some manage external sensors such as temperature, humidity, airflow, etc.
Rack power distribution units (rack PDUs) are designed to ensure power delivery for IT equipment.
Relevance of a PDU
Defining the type of PDU is of utmost relevance, as the reliability, flexibility and scalability of the data center will depend on its specifications. Selecting the right PDU is critical to your capital and operational expenses.
Less than 3kW: It will be a 100% Single Phase (120V and 220V) environment.
Between 3kW and 5kW: It will be a Single Phase 220V environment.
More than 5kW up to 10kW: It will be a Three Phase 220V environment.
More than 10kW: It will be a Three Phase (220V and 415V) environment.
Single phase (120V and 220V) without insurance.
Single-phase (120V and 220V) and Three-phase (220V and 415V) with insurance.
There are several types of PDUs
- Basic (no intelligence at all)
- Local Metering (shows consumption on a display but does not connect to the network)
- Network Monitoring (monitors the entire PDU)
- Pro Network Monitoring (monitors each Outlet)
- Control and Monitoring (Controls the power on and off of the entire PDU and monitors each outlet)
- Pro Control and Monitoring
- Basic Rack PDU: basic power distribution for rack-mounted equipment.
- Monitorable Rack PDU: advanced power distribution that provides real-time monitoring of connected loads.
- Switched Rack PDU: superior power distribution that allows remote control of each outlet and monitoring of total power consumption.
- Per outlet metering: real-time remote monitoring of each individual outlet.
Some manufacturers provide a variety of features in basic PDUs to ensure high availability and future-proof functionality. For example, you can purchase a basic PDU with locking receptacles to minimize the risk of accidentally unplugging the equipment.
What to ask ourselves to choose the best PDU?
- What are your power needs for the critical IT equipment that will be connected?
- What type of voltage does the UPS supply? (Single Phase 120V, 220V or Three Phase 220/480V)
- Where will it be mounted and is it going to be vertical or horizontal?
- Horizontal racks for PDUs are installed inside the rack and occupy 1U or 2U of rack space and have 8 to 16 outlets.
- Vertically mounted racks for PDUs can have up to 54 outlets. They are installed on the back or side of the rack cabinet so that they do not take up essential equipment mounting space inside the rack.
- What level of monitoring and control is needed?
- What type of IT equipment do you have? (Servers, Switches, other)
Determining what is best will depend on the power available and the power needs of the connected equipment.
It will also be necessary to consider the expected growth and to have flexibility for when the data center needs to grow.
Intelligent PDUs make it possible to:
- Prevent imminent equipment outages.
- Maximize utilization.
- Identify underutilized equipment.
- Simplify ease of maintenance.
- Reduce time spent monitoring/reporting for testing.
- Collect data for future machine learning towards artificial intelligence and facility automation.
- Soluciones Power Up CPI
En un mundo interconectado, en el que las organizaciones utilizan una combinación de servicios empresariales y basados en la nube, la gestión remota de los activos y el espacio piso blanco es cada vez más importante.
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